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Georg Friedrich ist ein österreichischer Filmschauspieler. Georg Friedrich (* Oktober in Wien) ist ein österreichischer Filmschauspieler. Inhaltsverzeichnis. 1 Leben; 2 Filmografie. Kinofilme; Georg Friedrich Ferdinand Prinz von Preußen (* Juni in Bremen) ist ein deutscher Unternehmer und seit Oberhaupt des Hauses Hohenzollern. Georg Friedrich: Der Unergründliche. Österreichs wildester Schauspieler hat mehr zu bieten als Wiener Slang. von Stefan Grissemann. Georg Friedrich gilt als Kult-Mime, der für alle wichtigen österreichischen Regisseure gearbeitet hat. Als Kleinkrimineller, Schläger, Zuhälter, Gauner, Maulheld.

Georg Friedrich

Georg Friedrich. Copyright: Winner of "BEST ACTOR",Berlinale Kino. ​. Grosse Freiheit. Regie: Sebastian MeiseProduktion: Freibeuter film. /. Georg Friedrich: Der Unergründliche. Österreichs wildester Schauspieler hat mehr zu bieten als Wiener Slang. von Stefan Grissemann. Der österreichische Schauspieler Georg Friedrich wurde auf der "Berlinale " mit dem Titel "Shooting Star" versehen. Auf seinem Steckbrief stehen auch. Georg Friedrich Georg Friedrich. Copyright: Winner of "BEST ACTOR",Berlinale Kino. ​. Grosse Freiheit. Regie: Sebastian MeiseProduktion: Freibeuter film. /. Der österreichische Schauspieler Georg Friedrich wurde auf der "Berlinale " mit dem Titel "Shooting Star" versehen. Auf seinem Steckbrief stehen auch. Georg Friedrich Prinz von Preußen Das Land Preußen und der Generalbevollmächtigte des Hauses Hohenzollern, Friedrich von Berg, unterzeichnen einen. georg friedrich wohnort.

In a separate Canadian context, James Doull 's philosophy is deeply Hegelian. Beginning in the s after the fall of the Soviet Union, a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West.

For these scholars, fairly well represented by the Hegel Society of America and in cooperation with German scholars such as Otto Pöggeler and Walter Jaeschke, Hegel's works should be read without preconceptions.

Marx plays little-to-no role in these new readings. Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries.

Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives. Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th-century German group known as the Young Hegelians , which included Feuerbach, Marx, Engels and their followers.

In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking".

A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel.

Karl Popper wrote that "there is so much philosophical writing especially in the Hegelian school which may justly be criticised as meaningless verbiage".

Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century, whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist.

Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri have criticized Popper's theories about Hegel. Voegelin argued that Hegel should be understood not as a philosopher, but as a "sorcerer", i.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hegel disambiguation. German philosopher.

Portrait by Jakob Schlesinger , Stuttgart , Duchy of Württemberg. Berlin , Kingdom of Prussia. Continental philosophy German idealism Objective idealism Absolute idealism Hegelianism Historicism [2] Naturphilosophie Epistemic coherentism [3] Conceptualism [4] Empirical realism [5] Coherence theory of truth [6].

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Main article: Science of Logic. See also: Porphyrian tree. See also: Civil society.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Hegelianism. Main article: Thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Main article: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bibliography.

Philosophy portal. Daniel Breazeale. In Breazeale, Daniel; Fichte, Johann Fichte: Early Philosophical Writings. Cornell University Press.

The Coherence Theory of Truth. Stanford University. Hegel, Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts , "Vorrede": "Was vernünftig ist, das ist Wirklich; und was wirklich ist, das ist vernünftig.

II, Meiner, [], pp. Journal of the History of Economic Thought. Subjects of desire: Hegelian reflections in twentieth-century France.

New York: Columbia University Press. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed.

Duden in German. Retrieved Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It does not occur anywhere in The Science of Logic though he comes close in a remark on p.

Greraets, Suchting and Harris note in the introduction to their translation of this later text that the term is more strongly associated with English movement in that later part of the 19th century Hackett: , xiii.

Translated by Breazeale, Daniel. Retrieved 17 April Jahrhundert , Harper, Herbert L. Hegel: A Biography.

Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge Companion to Hegel. Phenomenology and System. Lexington Books. Archived from the original PDF on Hegel, Dissertatio philosophica de Orbitis Planetarum.

Hegel, Philosophical Dissertation on the Orbits of the Planets. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Bibcode : JHA The letter was not published in Hegel's time, but the expression was attributed to Hegel anecdotally, appearing in print from L.

Noack, Schelling und die Philosophie der Romantik , , p. It is used without attribution by Meyer Kayserling in his Sephardim , and is apparently not recognized as a reference to Hegel by the reviewer in Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen 2 p.

The phrase become widely associated with Hegel later in the 19th century, e. October , p.

Hegel, letter of 13 October to F. Niethammer, no. Hoffmeister, vol. Schnädelbach in Wolfgang Welsch, Klaus Vieweg eds.

Pinkard A Companion to Heidegger. Wrathall, Mark A. Critique of Pure Reason. Hegel's Science of Logic. Miller, Arnold V.

Amherst, N. Hegel's science of logic. Science of Logic. Humanity Books. Humanities Press. West Lafayette, Ind. Evanston, Ill.

Understanding Hegel's mature critique of Kant. Stanford, California. New York, NY. Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte. An Introduction to Hegel's Logic.

Lars Aagaard-Mogensen trans. Hackett Publishing. A History of Philosophy: Volume 7: 18th and 19th century German philosophy.

Continuum International Publishing Group. Chapter X. Krug", Kritisches Journal der Philosophie , I, no.

Museum Tusculanum Press. Vickroy and Susan E. Blow—who were both minor associates of the St.

Louis Hegelians—independently of each other translated various chapters from Göschel's book into English, and had their translations published in The Journal of Speculative Philosophy.

The Journal of Speculative Philosophy in print from — was the official journal of the St. Louis Philosophical Society.

The St. Louis Philosophical Society—the organization which served as the hub of the St. Susan Elizabeth Blow — was an educator who in opened the first successful public kindergarten in the U.

Louis, Missouri. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Hegel — A Biography. United States: Cambridge University Press.

George di Giovanni. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kaufmann , Hegel: A Reinterpretation , Anchor, p.

Kaufmann, , Hegel: A Reinterpretation , p. Mueller Jon Stewart ed. The Hegel Myths and Legends. Northwestern University Press.

Francis Fukuyama and the End of History. University of Wales Press. Russell, History of Western Philosophy , chapter 22, paragraph 1, p.

A History of Western Philosophy. Fraser, F. Muller eds. Instead, I argue that we must understand Hegel as a Hermetic thinker, if we are to truly understand him at all.

Adcock, Robert Oxford University Press. Beiser, Frederick C. New York: Routledge. Burbidge, John, Broadview Press. Hegel: A Re-examination.

New York: Oxford University Press. SUNY Press. Stanford University Press. Hegel: Phenomenology and System. Indianapolis: Hackett.

Houlgate, Stephen, An Introduction to Hegel. Freedom, Truth and History. Oxford: Blackwell Houlgate, Stephen, Purdue University Press.

Paris: Aubier. Inwood, Michael , Athens: Ohio University Press. Kaufmann, Walter , Hegel: A Reinterpretation. Paris: Gallimard. James H.

Nichols, Jr. Kreines, James Hegel and the Freedom of Moderns. Una cosa es ella misma y no es ella, porque en realidad toda cosa cambia y se transforma ella misma en otra cosa.

La realidad es la unidad de la esencia y la existencia. La cantidad se transforma en calidad y los cambios se interconectan y provocan los unos con los otros.

La actividad humana une lo subjetivo con lo objetivo. Existe una diferencia entre la apariencia en lo real y la apariencia en el arte.

La primera, gracias a la inmediatez de lo sensible, se presenta como verdadera, se nos aparece como lo real.

El contenido determina una forma. Al serle al arte esencial la forma, el mismo es limitado. Estas marcan el camino de la idea en el arte, son diferentes relaciones entre el contenido y la forma.

La figura es deficiente, no expresa la idea. El hombre parte del material sensible de la naturaleza y construye una forma a la cual le adjudica un significado.

Consultado el 10 de febrero de Handel: Messiah. Cambridge University Press. WordPower Publishing. Londres: R. Consultado el 14 de febrero de Westminster Abbey.

Consultado el 28 de mayo de The Cambridge guide to theatre. Archivado desde el original el 30 de enero de Consultado el 21 de diciembre de Eighteenth-Century Music.

Consultado el 13 de abril de Consultado el 10 de agosto de Consultado el 9 de agosto de

Georg Friedrich Star Datenbank

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This research program took on new meaning with the publication of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Kant derives his own table of categories the twelve pure or "ancestral" concepts of the understanding that structure all experience irrespective of content from a standard term-logical table of judgments, noting also that.

The Science of Logic which the latter Hegel considered central to his philosophy can be considered a notable contribution to the research program of category metaphysics in its post-Kantian form, taking up the project that Kants in the above passage suggests is necessary but does not himself pursue: "to take note of and, as far as possible, completely catalog" the derivative concepts of the pure understanding and "completely illustrate its family tree.

The affinity between Hegel and Kant's logics "speculative" and "transcendental" respectively is apparent in their vocabulary—for instance, Kant speaks of Entstehen coming-to-be and Vergehen ceasing-to-be , the same two terms that Hegel uses to refer to the two compositional elements of Werden becoming.

Kant uses the term Veränderung change here instead of Werden , however, and the designation of ontological categories by name is itself a complex topic.

And although the Logic 's table of contents minimally resembles Kant's table of categories, the four headings of Kant's table quantity, quality, relation, and modality do not play, in Hegel's dialectic, the organizational role that Kant had in mind for them, and Hegel ultimately faults Kant for copying the table of judgments from the "modern compendiums of logic" whose subject matter is, Hegel says, in need of "total reconstruction.

In other words, because every concept is a composite of contraries value is black and white, temperature is hot and cold, etc.

For this reason, Hegel's Logic begins with the summum genus , "Being, pure Being," "and God has the absolutely undisputed right that the beginning be made with him" [60] from which are derived more concrete concepts such as becoming, determinate being, something, and infinity.

The precise nature of the procedural self-concretization that drives Hegel's Logic is still the subject of controversy.

Scholars such as Clark Butler hold that a good portion of the Logic is formalizable, proceeding deductively via indirect proof.

As the logical Idea is seen to unfold itself in a process from the abstract to the concrete, so in the history of philosophy the earliest systems are the most abstract, and thus at the same time the poorest Thus, Hegel's categories are at least in part carried over from his Lectures on the History of Philosophy.

For example: Parmenides takes pure being to be the absolute; Gorgias replaces it with pure nothing; Heraclitus replaces both being and nothing with becoming which is a unity of two contraries: coming-to-be and ceasing-to-be.

That history should resemble this dialectic indicates to Hegel that history is something rational.

For both Hegel and Kant, "we arrive at the concept of the thing in itself by removing, or abstracting from, everything in our experiences of objects of which we can become conscious.

If we abstract 'Ding' [ thing ] from 'Ding-an-sich' [ thing-in-itself ], we get one of Hegel's standard phrases: 'an sich.

A child, in Hegel's example, is thus 'in itself' the adult it will become: to know what a 'child' is means to know that it is, in some respects, a vacancy which will only gain content after it has grown out of childhood.

The thing as it is in itself is indeed knowable: it is the indeterminate, "futural" aspect of the thing we experience——it is what we will come to know.

In other words—although the thing-in-itself is at any given moment thoroughly unknown, it nevertheless remains that part of the thing about which it is presently possible to learn more.

Karen Ng writes that "there is a central, recurring rhetorical device that Hegel returns to again and again throughout his philosophical system: that of describing the activity of reason and thought in terms of the dynamic activity and development of organic life.

The speculative identity of mind and nature suggests that reason and history progress in the direction of the Absolute by traversing various stages of relative immaturity, just like a sapling or a child, overcoming necessary setbacks and obstacles along the way see Progress below.

The structure of Hegel's Logic appears to exhibit self-similarity , with sub-sections, in their treatment of more specific subject matter, resembling the treatment of the whole.

Hegel's concept of Aufhebung , by which parts are preserved and repurposed within the whole, anticipates the concept of emergence in contemporary systems theory and evolutionary biology.

Hegel's thinking can be understood as a constructive development within the broad tradition that includes Plato and Immanuel Kant.

What all these thinkers share, which distinguishes them from materialists like Epicurus and Thomas Hobbes and from empiricists like David Hume , is that they regard freedom or self-determination both as real and as having important ontological implications for soul or mind or divinity.

This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion in the Phaedo , Republic and Timaeus of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than inanimate objects possess.

While Aristotle criticizes Plato's "Forms", he preserves Plato's cornerstones of the ontological implications for self-determination: ethical reasoning, the soul's pinnacle in the hierarchy of nature, the order of the cosmos and an assumption with reasoned arguments for a prime mover.

Kant imports Plato's high esteem of individual sovereignty to his considerations of moral and noumenal freedom as well as to God.

All three find common ground on the unique position of humans in the scheme of things, known by the discussed categorical differences from animals and inanimate objects.

In his discussion of "Spirit" in his Encyclopedia , Hegel praises Aristotle's On the Soul as "by far the most admirable, perhaps even the sole, work of philosophical value on this topic".

Rather than simply rejecting Kant's dualism of freedom versus nature, Hegel aims to subsume it within "true infinity", the "Concept" or "Notion": Begriff , "Spirit" and "ethical life" in such a way that the Kantian duality is rendered intelligible, rather than remaining a brute "given".

The reason why this subsumption takes place in a series of concepts is that Hegel's method in his Science of Logic and his Encyclopedia is to begin with basic concepts like "Being" and "Nothing" and to develop these through a long sequence of elaborations, including those already mentioned.

In this manner, a solution that is reached in principle in the account of "true infinity" in the Science of Logic' s chapter on "Quality" is repeated in new guises at later stages, all the way to "Spirit" and "ethical life" in the third volume of the Encyclopedia.

In this way, Hegel intends to defend the germ of truth in Kantian dualism against reductive or eliminative programs like those of materialism and empiricism.

Like Plato, with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites, Kant pursues the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" or, in Plato's case, "good" which transcends bodily restrictiveness.

Hegel preserves this essential Platonic and Kantian concern in the form of infinity going beyond the finite a process that Hegel in fact relates to "freedom" and the "ought" , [69] : —, the universal going beyond the particular in the Concept and Spirit going beyond Nature.

Hegel renders these dualities intelligible by ultimately his argument in the "Quality" chapter of the "Science of Logic".

The finite has to become infinite in order to achieve reality. The idea of the absolute excludes multiplicity so the subjective and objective must achieve synthesis to become whole.

This is because as Hegel suggests by his introduction of the concept of "reality", [69] : what determines itself—rather than depending on its relations to other things for its essential character—is more fully "real" following the Latin etymology of "real", more "thing-like" than what does not.

Finite things do not determine themselves because as "finite" things their essential character is determined by their boundaries over against other finite things, so in order to become "real" they must go beyond their finitude "finitude is only as a transcending of itself".

The result of this argument is that finite and infinite—and by extension, particular and universal, nature and freedom—do not face one another as two independent realities, but instead the latter in each case is the self-transcending of the former.

The mystical writings of Jakob Böhme had a strong effect on Hegel. This evolution was itself the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness.

Modern philosophy, culture and society seemed to Hegel fraught with contradictions and tensions, such as those between the subject and object of knowledge, mind and nature, self and Other , freedom and authority, knowledge and faith, or the Enlightenment and Romanticism.

Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that in different contexts he called "the absolute Idea" Science of Logic , sections — or "absolute knowledge" Phenomenology of Spirit , " DD Absolute Knowledge".

According to Hegel, the main characteristic of this unity was that it evolved through and manifested itself in contradiction and negation.

Contradiction and negation have a dynamic quality that at every point in each domain of reality — consciousness , history, philosophy, art, nature and society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up Aufhebung to a higher unity.

This whole is mental because it is mind that can comprehend all of these phases and sub-parts as steps in its own process of comprehension.

It is rational because the same, underlying, logical , developmental order underlies every domain of reality and is ultimately the order of self-conscious rational thought, although only in the later stages of development does it come to full self-consciousness.

The rational, self-conscious whole is not a thing or being that lies outside of other existing things or minds. Rather, it comes to completion only in the philosophical comprehension of individual existing human minds who through their own understanding bring this developmental process to an understanding of itself.

Hegel's thought is revolutionary to the extent that it is a philosophy of absolute negation—as long as absolute negation is at the center, systematization remains open, and makes it possible for human beings to become subjects.

Some [ who? Geist combines the meaning of spirit—as in god, ghost, or mind—with an intentional force. In Hegel's early philosophy of nature draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of Jena , Hegel's notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of " Aether ", from which Hegel also derived the concepts of space and time , but in his later works after Jena he did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether" anymore.

Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge and mind and therefore also of reality was the notion of identity in difference —that is, that mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects that stand outside of it or opposed to it; and that through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind.

This notion of identity in difference, which is intimately bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity, is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from that of other philosophers.

Hegel made the distinction between civil society and state in his Elements of the Philosophy of Right. On the left, it became the foundation for Karl Marx 's civil society as an economic base ; [75] to the right, it became a description for all non-state and the state is the peak of the objective spirit aspects of society, including culture, society and politics.

This liberal distinction between political society and civil society was followed by Alexis de Tocqueville.

For example, while it seems to be the case that he felt that a civil society such as the German society in which he lived was an inevitable movement of the dialectic, he made way for the crushing of other types of "lesser" and not fully realized types of civil society as these societies were not fully conscious or aware—as it were—as to the lack of progress in their societies.

Thus, it was perfectly legitimate in the eyes of Hegel for a conqueror such as Napoleon to come along and destroy that which was not fully realized.

Hegel's State is the final culmination of the embodiment of freedom or right Rechte in the Elements of the Philosophy of Right.

The State subsumes family and civil society and fulfills them. All three together are called "ethical life" Sittlichkeit.

The State involves three " moments ". In a Hegelian State, citizens both know their place and choose their place. They both know their obligations and choose to fulfill their obligations.

An individual's "supreme duty is to be a member of the state" Elements of the Philosophy of Right , section The individual has "substantial freedom in the state".

The State is "objective spirit" so "it is only through being a member of the state that the individual himself has objectivity, truth, and ethical life" section Furthermore, every member both loves the State with genuine patriotism, but has transcended mere "team spirit" by reflectively endorsing their citizenship.

Members of a Hegelian State are happy even to sacrifice their lives for the State. According to Hegel, " Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite, that is, its essence as process.

The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. His is the persistent Idea that is the same in all philosophers up to the present day, as it was the Idea of Plato and Aristotle".

According to Hegel, Heraclitus's "obscurity" comes from his being a true in Hegel's terms "speculative" philosopher who grasped the ultimate philosophical truth and therefore expressed himself in a way that goes beyond the abstract and limited nature of common sense and is difficult to grasp by those who operate within common sense.

Hegel asserted that in Heraclitus he had an antecedent for his logic: "[ Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy.

Heraclitus does not form any abstract nouns from his ordinary use of "to be" and "to become" and in that fragment seems to be opposing any identity A to any other identity B, C and so on, which is not-A.

However, Hegel interprets not-A as not existing at all, not nothing at all, which cannot be conceived, but indeterminate or "pure" being without particularity or specificity.

This interpretation of Heraclitus cannot be ruled out, but even if present is not the main gist of his thought.

For Hegel, the inner movement of reality is the process of God thinking as manifested in the evolution of the universe of nature and thought; that is, Hegel argued that when fully and properly understood, reality is being thought by God as manifested in a person's comprehension of this process in and through philosophy.

Since human thought is the image and fulfillment of God's thought, God is not ineffable so incomprehensible as to be unutterable , but can be understood by an analysis of thought and reality.

Just as humans continually correct their concepts of reality through a dialectical process , so God himself becomes more fully manifested through the dialectical process of becoming.

For his god, Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers rather to the nous of Anaxagoras , although he may well have regarded them the same as he continues to refer to god's plan, which is identical to God.

Whatever the nous thinks at any time is actual substance and is identical to limited being, but more remains to be thought in the substrate of non-being, which is identical to pure or unlimited thought.

The universe as becoming is therefore a combination of being and non-being. The particular is never complete in itself, but to find completion is continually transformed into more comprehensive, complex, self-relating particulars.

The essential nature of being-for-itself is that it is free "in itself;" that is, it does not depend on anything else such as matter for its being.

The limitations represent fetters, which it must constantly be casting off as it becomes freer and more self-determining. Although Hegel began his philosophizing with commentary on the Christian religion and often expresses the view that he is a Christian, his ideas of God are not acceptable to some Christians even though he has had a major influence on 19th- and 20th-century theology.

As a graduate of a Protestant seminary, Hegel's theological concerns were reflected in many of his writings and lectures.

In his posthumously published Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion , Part 3 , Hegel is shown as being particularly interested with the demonstrations of God's existence and the ontological proof.

This means that Jesus as the Son of God is posited by God over against himself as other. Hegel sees both a relational unity and a metaphysical unity between Jesus and God the Father.

To Hegel, Jesus is both divine and human. Hegel further attests that God as Jesus not only died, but "[ God rises again to life, and thus things are reversed".

The philosopher Walter Kaufmann has argued that there was great stress on the sharp criticisms of traditional Christianity appearing in Hegel's so-called early theological writings.

Kaufmann admits that Hegel treated many distinctively Christian themes and "sometimes could not resist equating" his conception of spirit Geist "with God, instead of saying clearly: in God I do not believe; spirit suffices me".

Kaufmann goes on:. Aside to his beloved Greeks, Hegel saw before him the example of Spinoza and, in his own time, the poetry of Goethe, Schiller, and Hölderlin, who also liked to speak of gods and the divine.

So he, too, sometimes spoke of God and, more often, of the divine; and because he occasionally took pleasure in insisting that he was really closer to this or that Christian tradition than some of the theologians of his time, he has sometimes been understood to have been a Christian.

According to Hegel himself, his philosophy was consistent with Christianity. Göschel's book on this subject was titled Von den Beweisen für die Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele im Lichte der spekulativen Philosophie: eine Ostergabe Berlin: Verlag von Duncker und Humblot, Hegel seemed to have an ambivalent relationship with magic , myth and Paganism.

He formulates an early philosophical example of a disenchantment narrative, arguing that Judaism was responsible both for realizing the existence of Geist and, by extension, for separating nature from ideas of spiritual and magical forces and challenging polytheism.

Hegel continued to develop his thoughts on religion both in terms of how it was to be given a 'wissenschaftlich', or "theoretically rigorous," account in the context of his own "system," and, most importantly, with how a fully modern religion could be understood.

During the last ten years of his life, Hegel did not publish another book, but thoroughly revised the Encyclopedia second edition, ; third, He also published some articles early in his career and during his Berlin period.

A number of other works on the philosophy of history , religion , aesthetics and the history of philosophy [93] were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously.

There are views of Hegel's thought as a representation of the summit of early 19th-century Germany's movement of philosophical idealism.

It would come to have a profound impact on many future philosophical schools, including schools that opposed Hegel's specific dialectical idealism , such as existentialism , the historical materialism of Marx, historism and British Idealism.

Hegel's influence was immense both in philosophy and in the other sciences. In the United States, Hegel's influence is evident in pragmatism.

The more recent movement of communitarianism has a strong Hegelian influence. Some of Hegel's writing was intended for those with advanced knowledge of philosophy, although his Encyclopedia was intended as a textbook in a university course.

Nevertheless, Hegel assumes that his readers are well-versed in Western philosophy. Those without this background would be well-advised to begin with one of the many general introductions to his thought.

As is always the case, difficulties are magnified for those reading him in translation. In fact, Hegel himself argues in his Science of Logic that the German language was particularly conducive to philosophical thought.

According to Walter Kaufmann, the basic idea of Hegel's works, especially the Phenomenology of Spirit , is that a philosopher should not "confine him or herself to views that have been held but penetrate these to the human reality they reflect".

In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness.

Every outlook in other words, is to be studied not merely as an academic possibility but as an existential reality". Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps.

The Right Hegelians , the allegedly direct disciples of Hegel at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität , advocated a Protestant orthodoxy and the political conservatism of the post- Napoleon Restoration period.

Today this faction continues among conservative Protestants, such as the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod , which was founded by missionaries from Germany when the Hegelian Right was active.

The Left Hegelians , also known as the Young Hegelians, interpreted Hegel in a revolutionary sense, leading to an advocation of atheism in religion and liberal democracy in politics.

In more recent studies, this paradigm has been questioned. Critiques of Hegel offered from the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a disproportionately large part of the literature on and about Hegel.

The Left Hegelians also influenced Marxism, which has in turn inspired global movements, from the Russian Revolution , the Chinese Revolution and myriad of practices up until the present moment.

According to Benedetto Croce , the Italian Fascist Giovanni Gentile "holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy".

In previous modern accounts of Hegelianism to undergraduate classes, for example , especially those formed prior to the Hegel renaissance, Hegel's dialectic was most often characterized as a three-step process, " thesis, antithesis, synthesis "; namely, that a "thesis" e.

However, Hegel used this classification only once and he attributed the terminology to Kant. The terminology was largely developed earlier by Fichte.

It was spread by Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus in accounts of Hegelian philosophy and since then the terms have been used as descriptive of this type of framework.

The "thesis—antithesis—synthesis" approach gives the sense that things or ideas are contradicted or opposed by things that come from outside them.

To the contrary, the fundamental notion of Hegel's dialectic is that things or ideas have internal contradictions.

From Hegel's point of view, analysis or comprehension of a thing or idea reveals that underneath its apparently simple identity or unity is an underlying inner contradiction.

This contradiction leads to the dissolution of the thing or idea in the simple form in which it presented itself and to a higher-level, more complex thing or idea that more adequately incorporates the contradiction.

The triadic form that appears in many places in Hegel e. For Hegel, reason is but "speculative", not "dialectical". According to their argument, although Hegel refers to "the two elemental considerations: first, the idea of freedom as the absolute and final aim; secondly, the means for realising it, i.

Furthermore, in Hegel's language the "dialectical" aspect or "moment" of thought and reality, by which things or thoughts turn into their opposites or have their inner contradictions brought to the surface, what he called Aufhebung , is only preliminary to the "speculative" and not "synthesizing" aspect or "moment", which grasps the unity of these opposites or contradiction.

It is widely admitted today that the old-fashioned description of Hegel's philosophy in terms of thesis—antithesis—synthesis is inaccurate.

Nevertheless, such is the persistence of this misnomer that the model and terminology survive in a number of scholarly works.

In the last half of the 20th century, Hegel's philosophy underwent a major renaissance. This was due to a the rediscovery and re-evaluation of Hegel as a possible philosophical progenitor of Marxism by philosophically oriented Marxists; b a resurgence of the historical perspective that Hegel brought to everything; and c an increasing recognition of the importance of his dialectical method.

In Reason and Revolution , Herbert Marcuse made the case for Hegel as a revolutionary and criticized Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse 's thesis that Hegel was a totalitarian.

Beginning in the s, Anglo-American Hegel scholarship has attempted to challenge the traditional interpretation of Hegel as offering a metaphysical system: this has also been the approach of Z.

Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri. This view, sometimes referred to as the "non-metaphysical option", has had a decided influence on many major English language studies of Hegel in the past forty years.

Late 20th-century literature in Western Theology that is friendly to Hegel includes works by such writers as Walter Kaufmann , Dale M.

Schlitt , Theodore Geraets , Philip M. Two prominent American philosophers, John McDowell and Robert Brandom sometimes referred to as the " Pittsburgh Hegelians" , have produced philosophical works exhibiting a marked Hegelian influence.

In a separate Canadian context, James Doull 's philosophy is deeply Hegelian. Beginning in the s after the fall of the Soviet Union, a fresh reading of Hegel took place in the West.

For these scholars, fairly well represented by the Hegel Society of America and in cooperation with German scholars such as Otto Pöggeler and Walter Jaeschke, Hegel's works should be read without preconceptions.

Marx plays little-to-no role in these new readings. Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries.

Ayer have challenged Hegelian philosophy from a variety of perspectives. Among the first to take a critical view of Hegel's system was the 19th-century German group known as the Young Hegelians , which included Feuerbach, Marx, Engels and their followers.

In particular, Russell considered "almost all" of Hegel's doctrines to be false. Hegel's contemporary Schopenhauer was particularly critical and wrote of Hegel's philosophy as "a pseudo-philosophy paralyzing all mental powers, stifling all real thinking".

A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel.

Karl Popper wrote that "there is so much philosophical writing especially in the Hegelian school which may justly be criticised as meaningless verbiage".

Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century, whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist.

Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri have criticized Popper's theories about Hegel. Voegelin argued that Hegel should be understood not as a philosopher, but as a "sorcerer", i.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hegel disambiguation. German philosopher. Portrait by Jakob Schlesinger , Stuttgart , Duchy of Württemberg.

Berlin , Kingdom of Prussia. Continental philosophy German idealism Objective idealism Absolute idealism Hegelianism Historicism [2] Naturphilosophie Epistemic coherentism [3] Conceptualism [4] Empirical realism [5] Coherence theory of truth [6].

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Main article: Science of Logic. See also: Porphyrian tree. See also: Civil society.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Hegelianism. Main article: Thesis, antithesis, synthesis.

Main article: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bibliography. Philosophy portal. Daniel Breazeale. In Breazeale, Daniel; Fichte, Johann Fichte: Early Philosophical Writings.

Cornell University Press. The Coherence Theory of Truth. Stanford University. Hegel, Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts , "Vorrede": "Was vernünftig ist, das ist Wirklich; und was wirklich ist, das ist vernünftig.

II, Meiner, [], pp. Journal of the History of Economic Thought. Subjects of desire: Hegelian reflections in twentieth-century France.

New York: Columbia University Press. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed.

Duden in German. Retrieved Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It does not occur anywhere in The Science of Logic though he comes close in a remark on p.

Greraets, Suchting and Harris note in the introduction to their translation of this later text that the term is more strongly associated with English movement in that later part of the 19th century Hackett: , xiii.

Translated by Breazeale, Daniel. Retrieved 17 April Jahrhundert , Harper, Herbert L. Hegel: A Biography. Cambridge University Press.

The Cambridge Companion to Hegel. Phenomenology and System. Lexington Books. Archived from the original PDF on Hegel, Dissertatio philosophica de Orbitis Planetarum.

Hegel, Philosophical Dissertation on the Orbits of the Planets. Journal for the History of Astronomy. Bibcode : JHA The letter was not published in Hegel's time, but the expression was attributed to Hegel anecdotally, appearing in print from L.

Noack, Schelling und die Philosophie der Romantik , , p. It is used without attribution by Meyer Kayserling in his Sephardim , and is apparently not recognized as a reference to Hegel by the reviewer in Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen 2 p.

The phrase become widely associated with Hegel later in the 19th century, e. October , p. Hegel, letter of 13 October to F.

Niethammer, no. Hoffmeister, vol. Fue el padre del historiador Karl von Hegel Una cosa es ella misma y no es ella, porque en realidad toda cosa cambia y se transforma ella misma en otra cosa.

La realidad es la unidad de la esencia y la existencia. La cantidad se transforma en calidad y los cambios se interconectan y provocan los unos con los otros.

La actividad humana une lo subjetivo con lo objetivo. Existe una diferencia entre la apariencia en lo real y la apariencia en el arte.

La primera, gracias a la inmediatez de lo sensible, se presenta como verdadera, se nos aparece como lo real. El contenido determina una forma.

Al serle al arte esencial la forma, el mismo es limitado. Estas marcan el camino de la idea en el arte, son diferentes relaciones entre el contenido y la forma.

La figura es deficiente, no expresa la idea. El hombre parte del material sensible de la naturaleza y construye una forma a la cual le adjudica un significado.

La forma es mayor que el contenido. Las esculturas griegas no eran, para los griegos, representaciones del dios sino que eran el dios mismo.

El contenido rebasa la forma. Los hombres se individualizan y entran en conflicto unos con otros: la comunidad original se quiebra. La vida se hace misterio y el misterio pasa a ser la esencia de Dios.

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